Commit d8cf4d58 authored by Miha's avatar Miha
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Processed docs with the latest keywords

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Entendemos como muito relevante o estabelecimento de um quadro consensual \r\npara as políticas de clima e energia em 2030 que: \r\na. Garanta a redução de riscos e incertezas para um novo ciclo de investimentos, b. Estimule o pioneirismo Europeu no procura de tecnologia eficientes e na I\u0026D, c. Permita à EU ter uma posição consolidada e ambiciosa na procura de \r\nconsensos multilaterais (e.g. Plataforma de Durban). \r\n2. Globalmente, parece-nos muito exigente a tarefa de conciliar a ambição assumida \r\npelos Roteiros 20501 com as importantes mudanças ocorridas desde a aprovação do quadro 20-20-20, concretamente: \r\na. Os roteiros assumem metas intermédias (2030) ambiciosas de ",[]],["40",[0]],["% para GEE e \r\n30% para energias renováveis, \r\nb. Por outro lado, o Livro Verde aborda questões para reflexão, maioritariamente \r\ndecorrentes da crise económica, como a acessibilidade financeira da energia, problemas orçamentais e de investimento de longo prazo. Neste contexto parece-nos essencial que futuros desenvolvimentos desta temática sejam mais concretos, decisivos e, adicionalmente, consubstanciados noutras fontes de informação além dos Roteiros 2050. \r\nA referência à “viabilização de futura exploração de recursos internos de petróleo e gás (convencionais e não convencionais)” também necessitará de uma maior explicitação, nomeadamente sobre as suas implicações no quadro de políticas para 2030. \r\n3. A questão das metas vinculativas versus indicativas é eminentemente política. De \r\nqualquer forma, e no caso particular da eficiência energética, reconhecemos que a natureza mista das suas metas é relevante para que a eficiência energética se \r\n1 Roteiro para a Energia 2050 (COM(2011) 885) e Roteiro de transição para uma economia hipocarbónica competitiva em 2050 (COM(2011) 112) \r\nPág. 2 de 3 \r\n\r\nmantenha como uma opção não comprometedora relativamente a outras políticas de fomento do mercado interno; ou seja, a eficiência energética deverá ser entendida como um meio e não um fim. \r\n4. Metas absolutas ou relativas: consideramos que se deverão manter as metas de \r\neficiência em termos absolutos, capazes de indicar um objetivo global de poupança claro e tangível. Adicionalmente, uma (nova) abordagem para a eficiência energética terá necessariamente que ter em consideração quer as especificidades nacionais (Estados-Membros) quer setoriais, garantindo flexibilidade na ação. \r\n5. Existem, no entanto, áreas de atuação que poderão ser mais centralizadas. Com a \r\nvasta experiência adquirida na implementação de esquemas de incentivo à produção de energia renovável nos vários Estados-Membros, há uma clara oportunidade para, no quadro 2030, introduzir um sistema Europeu harmonizado de incentivo às energias renováveis. \r\nÉ ainda oportuno salientar o Relatório da Comissão - COM (2013) 225 - relativo ao Apoio financeiro à eficiência energética dos edifícios, que refere a necessidade de estabelecer uma abordagem mais normalizada para a seleção e avaliação de projetos de eficiência energética no contexto do financiamento da política de coesão. \r\n6. Por último, a ADENE entende que futuros instrumentos de incentivo à eficiência \r\nenergética deverão privilegiar a temática da gestão da procura e os aspetos não tecnológicos (e.g. eliminação dos atuais obstáculos regulamentares, financeiros, de mercado e comportamentais). Os setores difusos (residencial, serviços, transportes) são muito relevantes ao nível do consumo de energia final, pelo que os cidadãos e as organizações têm um papel preponderante em matéria de eficiência. Neste contexto destacamos: i) a necessidade de maior literacia energética (controlo e previsão de faturas energéticas) e, i ) mitigação das distorções de mercado (os preços devem refletir os custos). \r\n\r\nAlgés, 02 de Julho de 2013 \r\nPág. 3 de 3 \r\n\r\n",[]]]);
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Entendemos como muito relevante o estabelecimento de um quadro consensual \r\npara as políticas de clima e energia em 2030 que: \r\na. Garanta a redução de riscos e incertezas para um novo ciclo de investimentos, b. Estimule o pioneirismo Europeu no procura de tecnologia eficientes e na I\u0026D, c. Permita à EU ter uma posição consolidada e ambiciosa na procura de \r\nconsensos multilaterais (e.g. Plataforma de Durban). \r\n2. Globalmente, parece-nos muito exigente a tarefa de conciliar a ambição assumida \r\npelos Roteiros 20501 com as importantes mudanças ocorridas desde a aprovação do quadro 20-20-20, concretamente: \r\na. Os roteiros assumem metas intermédias (2030) ambiciosas de ",[]],["40",[0]],["% para GEE e \r\n30% para energias renováveis, \r\nb. Por outro lado, o Livro Verde aborda questões para reflexão, maioritariamente \r\ndecorrentes da crise económica, como a acessibilidade financeira da energia, problemas orçamentais e de investimento de longo prazo. 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De \r\nqualquer forma, e no caso particular da eficiência energética, reconhecemos que a natureza mista das suas metas é relevante para que a eficiência energética se \r\n1 Roteiro para a Energia 2050 (COM(2011) 885) e Roteiro de transição para uma economia hipocarbónica competitiva em 2050 (COM(2011) 112) \r\nPág. 2 de 3 \r\n\r\nmantenha como uma opção não comprometedora relativamente a outras políticas de fomento do mercado interno; ou seja, a eficiência energética deverá ser entendida como um meio e não um fim. \r\n4. Metas absolutas ou relativas: consideramos que se deverão manter as metas de \r\neficiência em termos absolutos, capazes de indicar um objetivo global de poupança claro e tangível. Adicionalmente, uma (nova) abordagem para a eficiência energética terá necessariamente que ter em consideração quer as especificidades nacionais (Estados-Membros) quer setoriais, garantindo flexibilidade na ação. \r\n5. Existem, no entanto, áreas de atuação que poderão ser mais centralizadas. Com a \r\nvasta experiência adquirida na implementação de esquemas de incentivo à produção de energia renovável nos vários Estados-Membros, há uma clara oportunidade para, no quadro 2030, introduzir um sistema Europeu harmonizado de incentivo às energias renováveis. \r\nÉ ainda oportuno salientar o Relatório da Comissão - COM (2013) 225 - relativo ao Apoio financeiro à eficiência energética dos edifícios, que refere a necessidade de estabelecer uma abordagem mais normalizada para a seleção e avaliação de projetos de eficiência energética no contexto do financiamento da política de coesão. \r\n6. Por último, a ADENE entende que futuros instrumentos de incentivo à eficiência \r\nenergética deverão privilegiar a temática da gestão da procura e os aspetos não tecnológicos (e.g. eliminação dos atuais obstáculos regulamentares, financeiros, de mercado e comportamentais). Os setores difusos (residencial, serviços, transportes) são muito relevantes ao nível do consumo de energia final, pelo que os cidadãos e as organizações têm um papel preponderante em matéria de eficiência. Neste contexto destacamos: i) a necessidade de maior literacia energética (controlo e previsão de faturas energéticas) e, i ) mitigação das distorções de mercado (os preços devem refletir os custos). \r\n\r\nAlgés, 02 de Julho de 2013 \r\nPág. 3 de 3 \r\n\r\n",[]]]}
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Entendemos como muito relevante o estabelecimento de um quadro consensual \r\npara as políticas de clima e energia em 2030 que: \r\na. Garanta a redução de riscos e incertezas para um novo ciclo de investimentos, b. Estimule o pioneirismo Europeu no procura de tecnologia eficientes e na I\u0026D, c. Permita à EU ter uma posição consolidada e ambiciosa na procura de \r\nconsensos multilaterais (e.g. Plataforma de Durban). \r\n2. Globalmente, parece-nos muito exigente a tarefa de conciliar a ambição assumida \r\npelos Roteiros 20501 com as importantes mudanças ocorridas desde a aprovação do quadro 20-20-20, concretamente: \r\na. Os roteiros assumem metas intermédias (2030) ambiciosas de ",[]],["40",[0]],["% para GEE e \r\n30% para energias renováveis, \r\nb. Por outro lado, o Livro Verde aborda questões para reflexão, maioritariamente \r\ndecorrentes da crise económica, como a acessibilidade financeira da energia, problemas orçamentais e de investimento de longo prazo. 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De \r\nqualquer forma, e no caso particular da eficiência energética, reconhecemos que a natureza mista das suas metas é relevante para que a eficiência energética se \r\n1 Roteiro para a Energia 2050 (COM(2011) 885) e Roteiro de transição para uma economia hipocarbónica competitiva em 2050 (COM(2011) 112) \r\nPág. 2 de 3 \r\n\r\nmantenha como uma opção não comprometedora relativamente a outras políticas de fomento do mercado interno; ou seja, a eficiência energética deverá ser entendida como um meio e não um fim. \r\n4. Metas absolutas ou relativas: consideramos que se deverão manter as metas de \r\neficiência em termos absolutos, capazes de indicar um objetivo global de poupança claro e tangível. Adicionalmente, uma (nova) abordagem para a eficiência energética terá necessariamente que ter em consideração quer as especificidades nacionais (Estados-Membros) quer setoriais, garantindo flexibilidade na ação. \r\n5. Existem, no entanto, áreas de atuação que poderão ser mais centralizadas. Com a \r\nvasta experiência adquirida na implementação de esquemas de incentivo à produção de energia renovável nos vários Estados-Membros, há uma clara oportunidade para, no quadro 2030, introduzir um sistema Europeu harmonizado de incentivo às energias renováveis. \r\nÉ ainda oportuno salientar o Relatório da Comissão - COM (2013) 225 - relativo ao Apoio financeiro à eficiência energética dos edifícios, que refere a necessidade de estabelecer uma abordagem mais normalizada para a seleção e avaliação de projetos de eficiência energética no contexto do financiamento da política de coesão. \r\n6. Por último, a ADENE entende que futuros instrumentos de incentivo à eficiência \r\nenergética deverão privilegiar a temática da gestão da procura e os aspetos não tecnológicos (e.g. eliminação dos atuais obstáculos regulamentares, financeiros, de mercado e comportamentais). Os setores difusos (residencial, serviços, transportes) são muito relevantes ao nível do consumo de energia final, pelo que os cidadãos e as organizações têm um papel preponderante em matéria de eficiência. Neste contexto destacamos: i) a necessidade de maior literacia energética (controlo e previsão de faturas energéticas) e, i ) mitigação das distorções de mercado (os preços devem refletir os custos). \r\n\r\nAlgés, 02 de Julho de 2013 \r\nPág. 3 de 3 \r\n\r\n",[]]]}
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......@@ -36,9 +36,9 @@
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setContent([["\r\n\r\nAEGPL’s submission to the public consultation on a 2030 Framework for climate and energy policies \r\n\r\nAs citizens and as representatives of a clean and relatively low carbon gaseous fuel, the European LPG industry strongly supports the emergence of an ambitious EU climate strategy, and is committed to optimizing LPG\u0027s role in the transition towards a more climate-friendly energy model. \r\nAEGPL agrees with the trio of targets, reflecting the three areas that must be addressed for the EU to effectively tackle climate change and future energy challenges. It is important that the three objectives be coherently addressed, so as to avoid multiple regulations on the same ",[]],["target",[0]],[" and the ensuing regulatory burden for companies. \r\nOf the three targets, improving energy efficiency is the most effective means of simultaneously addressing the key challenges of sustainability, security of supply and competitiveness. Efficiency, as opposed to the promotion of any one type of energy, should be the cornerstone of Europe\u0027s energy strategy. \r\nAs far as the ",[]],["target",[0]],[" for GHG is concerned, it appears that the impact of black carbon on climate change was underestimated at the time when the Decision laying down the minimum contribution of Member States to meeting the GHG emission reduction commitment was published in 2009. The definition of greenhouse gases given in Article 2 of that Decision did not include black carbon. Since then, numerous studies, including a landmark scientific study published in 2013 by the American Geophysical Union, have found that black carbon is the second biggest contributor to climate change after carbon dioxide (1). Furthermore it has been noted by scientists that unlike with carbon dioxide, reductions in the emissions of black carbon have an immediate impact on climate and as a result action on this pollutant has the added benefit of reducing the chance of reaching climate “tipping points” in the short and medium term. It should be stressed that the European Parliament, in a Resolution adopted in September 2011, urged the Commission to undertake “immediate action towards the reduction of black carbon emissions as a fast-action method of halting glacial melting”. Black carbon should therefore be added to the list of pollutants covered by the ",[]],["target",[0]],[". \r\nConcerning the ",[]],["renewables target",[4]],[", and the question of whether it would be fit to maintain the separate ",[]],["renewables target",[4]],[" for ",[]],["transport",[2]],[": Increasing such a ",[]],["target",[0]],[" seems hardly \r\n\r\n1 ‘Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment’, American Geophysical Union (2013) available on Wiley online library \r\nAEGPL • Rue Belliard 15-17 • 1040 Brussels – Belgium • Tel. +32 (0)2 893 11 20 • Fax. +32 (0)2 893 11 29 • www.aegpl.eu \r\n\r\nappropriate given the current doubts as to whether the present 10% ",[]],["target",[0]],[" will be reached. In addition, the uncertainty concerning the accounting of the actual emissions from biofuels (how to take into account the ILUC factor) do not provide for the setting of a detailed strategy for renewables in the ",[]],["transport",[2]],[" sector. Finally, such a ",[]],["target",[0]],[" may be seen as redundant given the recent initiative from the Commission on the development of alternative ",[]],["transport",[2]],[" fuels (Com(2013)18). Considering the overall EU objective of effectively decarbonising the ",[]],["transport",[2]],[" sector, AEGPL would like to suggest making any EU ",[]],["target",[0]],[" on ",[]],["transport",[2]],[" more in line with the Directive proposed recently for supporting the uptake of cleaner alternative fuels. We believe that instead of having a ",[]],["target",[0]],[" looking exclusively at biofuels, this ",[]],["target",[0]],[" could be complemented or even replaced by a more ",[]],["ambitious target",[1]],[" for alternative fuels covered in (Com(2013)18). It is indeed widely accepted that biofuels are not the only mean the EU has to decarbonise its ",[]],["transport",[2]],[" and other alternative fuels are equally important. \r\nThe climate and energy framework must be elaborated so as to be coherent with policies dealing with related specific sectors, e.g. the upcoming review of air quality policy. To optimize the cost-efficiency of meeting climate and energy objectives, synergies between policy areas should be better implemented. For example, synergies between climate policies and air quality policies can be exploited by fighting first and foremost pollutants that have effects both in terms of human health and climate change. Additionally, measures at consumer level (information on energy saving technologies, awareness raising, and education) can have a great impact at a relatively low cost. \r\nFurthermore, investments in socio-economic research could help develop our understanding of consumer behaviour as regards low carbon technologies, prices and ",[]],["energy savings",[3]],[". Consumer behaviour plays an important role in the success of energy policies on the ground. Such research could help companies and policy-makers design more targeted energy technologies and systems. \r\nFinally, AEGPL would like to point out that ambitious EU-level action on climate change will be infinitely more effective if it occurs as part of a wider global movement, particularly on the part of other major economies. Ultimately, establishing a working consensus with key partners on this point, ideally under an umbrella of European leadership, must be the top priority over the coming months and years. The EU’s policies and action on climate change, however extensive and ambitious, will have no effect on the final outcome if it ends up being the winner in a one horse race. \r\n\r\nAEGPL • Rue Belliard 15-17 • 1040 Brussels – Belgium • Tel. +32 (0)2 893 11 20 • Fax. +32 (0)2 893 11 29 • www.aegpl.eu \r\n\r\n",[]]]);
setContent([["\r\n\r\nAEGPL’s submission to the public consultation on a 2030 Framework for climate and energy policies \r\n\r\nAs citizens and as representatives of a clean and relatively low carbon gaseous fuel, the European LPG industry strongly supports the emergence of an ambitious EU climate strategy, and is committed to optimizing LPG\u0027s role in the transition towards a more climate-friendly energy model. \r\nAEGPL agrees with the trio of targets, reflecting the three areas that must be addressed for the EU to effectively tackle climate change and future energy challenges. It is important that the three objectives be coherently addressed, so as to avoid multiple regulations on the same ",[]],["target",[0]],[" and the ensuing regulatory burden for companies. \r\nOf the three targets, improving ",[]],["energy efficiency",[3]],[" is the most effective means of simultaneously addressing the key challenges of sustainability, security of supply and competitiveness. Efficiency, as opposed to the promotion of any one type of energy, should be the cornerstone of Europe\u0027s energy strategy. \r\nAs far as the ",[]],["target",[0]],[" for GHG is concerned, it appears that the impact of black carbon on climate change was underestimated at the time when the Decision laying down the minimum contribution of Member States to meeting the GHG emission reduction commitment was published in 2009. The definition of ",[]],["greenhouse",[0]],[" gases given in Article 2 of that Decision did not include black carbon. Since then, numerous studies, including a landmark scientific study published in 2013 by the American Geophysical Union, have found that black carbon is the second biggest contributor to climate change after carbon dioxide (1). Furthermore it has been noted by scientists that unlike with carbon dioxide, reductions in the emissions of black carbon have an immediate impact on climate and as a result action on this pollutant has the added benefit of reducing the chance of reaching climate “tipping points” in the short and medium term. It should be stressed that the European Parliament, in a Resolution adopted in September 2011, urged the Commission to undertake “immediate action towards the reduction of black carbon emissions as a fast-action method of halting glacial melting”. Black carbon should therefore be added to the list of pollutants covered by the ",[]],["target",[0]],[". \r\nConcerning the ",[]],["renewables target",[4]],[", and the question of whether it would be fit to maintain the separate ",[]],["renewables target",[4]],[" for ",[]],["transport",[2]],[": Increasing such a ",[]],["target",[0]],[" seems hardly \r\n\r\n1 ‘Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment’, American Geophysical Union (2013) available on Wiley online library \r\nAEGPL • Rue Belliard 15-17 • 1040 Brussels – Belgium • Tel. +32 (0)2 893 11 20 • Fax. +32 (0)2 893 11 29 • www.aegpl.eu \r\n\r\nappropriate given the current doubts as to whether the present 10% ",[]],["target",[0]],[" will be reached. In addition, the uncertainty concerning the accounting of the actual emissions from biofuels (how to take into account the ILUC factor) do not provide for the setting of a detailed strategy for renewables in the ",[]],["transport",[2]],[" sector. Finally, such a ",[]],["target",[0]],[" may be seen as redundant given the recent initiative from the Commission on the development of alternative ",[]],["transport",[2]],[" fuels (Com(2013)18). Considering the overall EU objective of effectively decarbonising the ",[]],["transport",[2]],[" sector, AEGPL would like to suggest making any EU ",[]],["target",[0]],[" on ",[]],["transport",[2]],[" more in line with the Directive proposed recently for supporting the uptake of cleaner alternative fuels. We believe that instead of having a ",[]],["target",[0]],[" looking exclusively at biofuels, this ",[]],["target",[0]],[" could be complemented or even replaced by a more ",[]],["ambitious target",[1]],[" for alternative fuels covered in (Com(2013)18). It is indeed widely accepted that biofuels are not the only mean the EU has to decarbonise its ",[]],["transport",[2]],[" and other alternative fuels are equally important. \r\nThe climate and energy framework must be elaborated so as to be coherent with policies dealing with related specific sectors, e.g. the upcoming review of air quality policy. To optimize the cost-efficiency of meeting climate and energy objectives, synergies between policy areas should be better implemented. For example, synergies between climate policies and air quality policies can be exploited by fighting first and foremost pollutants that have effects both in terms of human health and climate change. Additionally, measures at consumer level (information on energy saving technologies, awareness raising, and education) can have a great impact at a relatively low cost. \r\nFurthermore, investments in socio-economic research could help develop our understanding of consumer behaviour as regards low carbon technologies, prices and ",[]],["energy savings",[3]],[". Consumer behaviour plays an important role in the success of energy policies on the ground. Such research could help companies and policy-makers design more targeted energy technologies and systems. \r\nFinally, AEGPL would like to point out that ambitious EU-level action on climate change will be infinitely more effective if it occurs as part of a wider global movement, particularly on the part of other major economies. Ultimately, establishing a working consensus with key partners on this point, ideally under an umbrella of European leadership, must be the top priority over the coming months and years. The EU’s policies and action on climate change, however extensive and ambitious, will have no effect on the final outcome if it ends up being the winner in a one horse race. \r\n\r\nAEGPL • Rue Belliard 15-17 • 1040 Brussels – Belgium • Tel. +32 (0)2 893 11 20 • Fax. +32 (0)2 893 11 29 • www.aegpl.eu \r\n\r\n",[]]]);
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{"treeItems":[[1,"Q01",0],[1,"Q02",1],[1,"Q03",2],[1,"Q07",3],[1,"Q09",4]],"features":[["FileName","aegpl.pdf"]],"content":[["\r\n\r\nAEGPL’s submission to the public consultation on a 2030 Framework for climate and energy policies \r\n\r\nAs citizens and as representatives of a clean and relatively low carbon gaseous fuel, the European LPG industry strongly supports the emergence of an ambitious EU climate strategy, and is committed to optimizing LPG\u0027s role in the transition towards a more climate-friendly energy model. \r\nAEGPL agrees with the trio of targets, reflecting the three areas that must be addressed for the EU to effectively tackle climate change and future energy challenges. It is important that the three objectives be coherently addressed, so as to avoid multiple regulations on the same ",[]],["target",[0]],[" and the ensuing regulatory burden for companies. \r\nOf the three targets, improving energy efficiency is the most effective means of simultaneously addressing the key challenges of sustainability, security of supply and competitiveness. Efficiency, as opposed to the promotion of any one type of energy, should be the cornerstone of Europe\u0027s energy strategy. \r\nAs far as the ",[]],["target",[0]],[" for GHG is concerned, it appears that the impact of black carbon on climate change was underestimated at the time when the Decision laying down the minimum contribution of Member States to meeting the GHG emission reduction commitment was published in 2009. The definition of greenhouse gases given in Article 2 of that Decision did not include black carbon. Since then, numerous studies, including a landmark scientific study published in 2013 by the American Geophysical Union, have found that black carbon is the second biggest contributor to climate change after carbon dioxide (1). Furthermore it has been noted by scientists that unlike with carbon dioxide, reductions in the emissions of black carbon have an immediate impact on climate and as a result action on this pollutant has the added benefit of reducing the chance of reaching climate “tipping points” in the short and medium term. It should be stressed that the European Parliament, in a Resolution adopted in September 2011, urged the Commission to undertake “immediate action towards the reduction of black carbon emissions as a fast-action method of halting glacial melting”. Black carbon should therefore be added to the list of pollutants covered by the ",[]],["target",[0]],[". \r\nConcerning the ",[]],["renewables target",[4]],[", and the question of whether it would be fit to maintain the separate ",[]],["renewables target",[4]],[" for ",[]],["transport",[2]],[": Increasing such a ",[]],["target",[0]],[" seems hardly \r\n\r\n1 ‘Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment’, American Geophysical Union (2013) available on Wiley online library \r\nAEGPL • Rue Belliard 15-17 • 1040 Brussels – Belgium • Tel. +32 (0)2 893 11 20 • Fax. +32 (0)2 893 11 29 • www.aegpl.eu \r\n\r\nappropriate given the current doubts as to whether the present 10% ",[]],["target",[0]],[" will be reached. In addition, the uncertainty concerning the accounting of the actual emissions from biofuels (how to take into account the ILUC factor) do not provide for the setting of a detailed strategy for renewables in the ",[]],["transport",[2]],[" sector. Finally, such a ",[]],["target",[0]],[" may be seen as redundant given the recent initiative from the Commission on the development of alternative ",[]],["transport",[2]],[" fuels (Com(2013)18). Considering the overall EU objective of effectively decarbonising the ",[]],["transport",[2]],[" sector, AEGPL would like to suggest making any EU ",[]],["target",[0]],[" on ",[]],["transport",[2]],[" more in line with the Directive proposed recently for supporting the uptake of cleaner alternative fuels. We believe that instead of having a ",[]],["target",[0]],[" looking exclusively at biofuels, this ",[]],["target",[0]],[" could be complemented or even replaced by a more ",[]],["ambitious target",[1]],[" for alternative fuels covered in (Com(2013)18). It is indeed widely accepted that biofuels are not the only mean the EU has to decarbonise its ",[]],["transport",[2]],[" and other alternative fuels are equally important. \r\nThe climate and energy framework must be elaborated so as to be coherent with policies dealing with related specific sectors, e.g. the upcoming review of air quality policy. To optimize the cost-efficiency of meeting climate and energy objectives, synergies between policy areas should be better implemented. For example, synergies between climate policies and air quality policies can be exploited by fighting first and foremost pollutants that have effects both in terms of human health and climate change. Additionally, measures at consumer level (information on energy saving technologies, awareness raising, and education) can have a great impact at a relatively low cost. \r\nFurthermore, investments in socio-economic research could help develop our understanding of consumer behaviour as regards low carbon technologies, prices and ",[]],["energy savings",[3]],[". Consumer behaviour plays an important role in the success of energy policies on the ground. Such research could help companies and policy-makers design more targeted energy technologies and systems. \r\nFinally, AEGPL would like to point out that ambitious EU-level action on climate change will be infinitely more effective if it occurs as part of a wider global movement, particularly on the part of other major economies. Ultimately, establishing a working consensus with key partners on this point, ideally under an umbrella of European leadership, must be the top priority over the coming months and years. The EU’s policies and action on climate change, however extensive and ambitious, will have no effect on the final outcome if it ends up being the winner in a one horse race. \r\n\r\nAEGPL • Rue Belliard 15-17 • 1040 Brussels – Belgium • Tel. +32 (0)2 893 11 20 • Fax. +32 (0)2 893 11 29 • www.aegpl.eu \r\n\r\n",[]]]}
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It is important that the three objectives be coherently addressed, so as to avoid multiple regulations on the same ",[]],["target",[0]],[" and the ensuing regulatory burden for companies. \r\nOf the three targets, improving ",[]],["energy efficiency",[3]],[" is the most effective means of simultaneously addressing the key challenges of sustainability, security of supply and competitiveness. Efficiency, as opposed to the promotion of any one type of energy, should be the cornerstone of Europe\u0027s energy strategy. \r\nAs far as the ",[]],["target",[0]],[" for GHG is concerned, it appears that the impact of black carbon on climate change was underestimated at the time when the Decision laying down the minimum contribution of Member States to meeting the GHG emission reduction commitment was published in 2009. The definition of ",[]],["greenhouse",[0]],[" gases given in Article 2 of that Decision did not include black carbon. Since then, numerous studies, including a landmark scientific study published in 2013 by the American Geophysical Union, have found that black carbon is the second biggest contributor to climate change after carbon dioxide (1). Furthermore it has been noted by scientists that unlike with carbon dioxide, reductions in the emissions of black carbon have an immediate impact on climate and as a result action on this pollutant has the added benefit of reducing the chance of reaching climate “tipping points” in the short and medium term. It should be stressed that the European Parliament, in a Resolution adopted in September 2011, urged the Commission to undertake “immediate action towards the reduction of black carbon emissions as a fast-action method of halting glacial melting”. Black carbon should therefore be added to the list of pollutants covered by the ",[]],["target",[0]],[". \r\nConcerning the ",[]],["renewables target",[4]],[", and the question of whether it would be fit to maintain the separate ",[]],["renewables target",[4]],[" for ",[]],["transport",[2]],[": Increasing such a ",[]],["target",[0]],[" seems hardly \r\n\r\n1 ‘Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment’, American Geophysical Union (2013) available on Wiley online library \r\nAEGPL • Rue Belliard 15-17 • 1040 Brussels – Belgium • Tel. +32 (0)2 893 11 20 • Fax. +32 (0)2 893 11 29 • www.aegpl.eu \r\n\r\nappropriate given the current doubts as to whether the present 10% ",[]],["target",[0]],[" will be reached. In addition, the uncertainty concerning the accounting of the actual emissions from biofuels (how to take into account the ILUC factor) do not provide for the setting of a detailed strategy for renewables in the ",[]],["transport",[2]],[" sector. Finally, such a ",[]],["target",[0]],[" may be seen as redundant given the recent initiative from the Commission on the development of alternative ",[]],["transport",[2]],[" fuels (Com(2013)18). Considering the overall EU objective of effectively decarbonising the ",[]],["transport",[2]],[" sector, AEGPL would like to suggest making any EU ",[]],["target",[0]],[" on ",[]],["transport",[2]],[" more in line with the Directive proposed recently for supporting the uptake of cleaner alternative fuels. We believe that instead of having a ",[]],["target",[0]],[" looking exclusively at biofuels, this ",[]],["target",[0]],[" could be complemented or even replaced by a more ",[]],["ambitious target",[1]],[" for alternative fuels covered in (Com(2013)18). It is indeed widely accepted that biofuels are not the only mean the EU has to decarbonise its ",[]],["transport",[2]],[" and other alternative fuels are equally important. \r\nThe climate and energy framework must be elaborated so as to be coherent with policies dealing with related specific sectors, e.g. the upcoming review of air quality policy. To optimize the cost-efficiency of meeting climate and energy objectives, synergies between policy areas should be better implemented. For example, synergies between climate policies and air quality policies can be exploited by fighting first and foremost pollutants that have effects both in terms of human health and climate change. Additionally, measures at consumer level (information on energy saving technologies, awareness raising, and education) can have a great impact at a relatively low cost. \r\nFurthermore, investments in socio-economic research could help develop our understanding of consumer behaviour as regards low carbon technologies, prices and ",[]],["energy savings",[3]],[". Consumer behaviour plays an important role in the success of energy policies on the ground. Such research could help companies and policy-makers design more targeted energy technologies and systems. \r\nFinally, AEGPL would like to point out that ambitious EU-level action on climate change will be infinitely more effective if it occurs as part of a wider global movement, particularly on the part of other major economies. Ultimately, establishing a working consensus with key partners on this point, ideally under an umbrella of European leadership, must be the top priority over the coming months and years. The EU’s policies and action on climate change, however extensive and ambitious, will have no effect on the final outcome if it ends up being the winner in a one horse race. \r\n\r\nAEGPL • Rue Belliard 15-17 • 1040 Brussels – Belgium • Tel. +32 (0)2 893 11 20 • Fax. +32 (0)2 893 11 29 • www.aegpl.eu \r\n\r\n",[]]]}
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